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Observation and Interview-based Diurnal Sleepiness Inventory for measurement of sleepiness in older adults

Authors Pak VM, Onen SH, Gooneratne NS, Falissard B, Onen F

Received 7 February 2017

Accepted for publication 9 August 2017

Published 29 September 2017 Volume 2017:9 Pages 241—247

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S134112

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Steven Shea

Victoria M Pak,1,2 S-Hakki Onen,3,4 Nalaka S Gooneratne,4 Bruno Falissard,5 Fannie Onen4–6

1Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 2Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3CHU Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Geriatric Sleep Medicine Center, Lyon, France; 4Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5CHU Bichat Claude Bernard, Gériatrie, APHP, Paris, 6CESP, INSERM 1018 & 1178, Université Paris Sud, Paris, France

Introduction: There is no established reference standard for subjective measures of sleepiness in older adults.
Methods: This study compares the Observation and Interview-based Diurnal Sleepiness Inventory (ODSI) with two existing instruments for measurement of sleepiness and daily functioning, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ).
Results: A total of 125 study participants were included in this study and were administered the ODSI, ESS and FOSQ; subjects had a mean age of 70.9 ± 5.27 years, mean Apnea–Hypopnea Index of 31.9 ± 27.9 events/hour and normal cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination score > 24). The ODSI showed a significant association with the ESS (Spearman’s ρ: 0.67, P < 0.001) and with the FOSQ (Spearman’s ρ: –0.52, P < 0.001). The ODSI 1 item (assessing sleepiness in active situations) was borderline significantly correlated with the ESS (β = 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], –0.01 to 0.29; P = 0.069). ODSI 2 item (sleepiness in passive situations) was correlated with the ESS (β = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.98; P < 0.001). Both ODSI 1 (β = –0.15; 95% CI, –0.24 to –0.07; P < 0.001) and ODSI 2 (β = –0.35; 95% CI, –0.55 to 0.16; P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with the FOSQ.
Conclusion: The ODSI is a suitable measure of sleepiness and is appropriate for usage in clinical care in older adults.

Keywords: excessive daytime sleepiness, functional status, sleep disorders, questionnaires

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