Nucleic acid recognizing Toll-like receptors as therapeutic targets: a focus on autoimmunity and cancer
Institute for Immunology, Philipps-Universität-Marburg, Marburg, Germany
Abstract: The “trinity” of nucleic acid recognizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is the focus of intense research efforts. Among the plethora of pattern recognition receptors the ones that recognize RNA and DNA always seemed Janus-faced in their potential – dangerous, but also promising. Therefore manipulating TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9, which recognize dsRNA-, ssRNA and CpG-containing DNA, respectively, is a very attractive goal, because increasing evidence shows that both suppression or enhancement of the immune system might thereby be achieved. In this review we try to illustrate the current knowledge of the endosomal nucleic acid recognizing TLRs. We then want to extend our view beyond the pathogen recognizing capacity to their role in autoimmunity and cancer. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the structure of TLRs, signaling pathways and ligand identity. The question of if and how we can translate this into new specific immunosuppressive drugs or anti-cancer adjuvants is discussed.
Keywords: Toll-like receptors, immunosuppressive drugs, anti-cancer adjuvants
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF]