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Novel route synthesis of porous and solid gold nanoparticles for investigating their comparative performance as contrast agent in computed tomography scan and effect on liver and kidney function

Authors Aziz F, Ihsan A, Nazir A, Ahmad I, Bajwa SZ, Rehman A, Diallo A, Khan WS

Received 17 November 2016

Accepted for publication 10 January 2017

Published 27 February 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1555—1563

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S127996

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Farooq Aziz,1,2 Ayesha Ihsan,1 Aalia Nazir,2 Ishaq Ahmad,3 Sadia Zafar Bajwa,1 Asma Rehman,1 Abdoulaye Diallo,4 Waheed S Khan1

1Nanobiotechnology Group, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, 2Department of Physics, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 3National Center for Physics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Laboratory of Photonics and Nano-Fabrication, Faculty of Science and Technology, Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar (UCAD), Dakar-Fann Dakar, Senegal

Abstract:
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with dimension in the range of 1–100 nm have a prominent role in a number of biomedical applications like imaging, drug delivery, and cancer therapy owing to their unique optical features and biocompatibility. In this work, we report a novel technique for the synthesis of two types of GNPs namely porous gold nanoparticles (PGNPs) and solid gold nanoparticles (SGNPs). PGNPs of size 35 nm were fabricated by reduction of gold (III) solution with lecithin followed by addition of L-ascorbic acid and tri-sodium citrate, whereas SGNPs with a dimension of 28 nm were prepared by reflux method using lecithin as a single reducing agent. Comparative studies using PGNPs (λmax 560 nm) and SGNPs (λmax 548 nm) were conducted for evaluating their use as a contrast agent. These studies reveled that in direct computed tomography scan, PGNPs exhibited brighter contrast (45 HU) than SGNPs (26 HU). To investigate the effect of PGNPs and SGNPs on the liver and kidney profile, male rabbits were intravenously injected with an equal dose of 1 mg/kg weight of PGNPs and SGNPs. The effect on biochemical parameters was evaluated 72 hours after intravenous (IV) injection including liver function profile, renal (kidney) function biomarker, random blood glucose value, and cholesterol level. During one comparison of contrast in CT scan, PGNPs showed significantly enhanced contrast in whole-rabbit and organ CT scan as compared to SGNPs 6 hours after injection. Our findings suggested that the novel PGNPs enhance CT scan image with higher efficacy as compared to SGNPs. The results showed that IV administration of synthesized PGNPs increases the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP), serum creatinine, and blood glucose, whereas that of SGNPs increases the levels of AST, ALP, and blood glucose.

Keywords: porous gold nanoparticles, solid gold nanoparticles, CT scan, contrast agent, liver function test, renal function test

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