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Novel N-substituted aminobenzamide scaffold derivatives targeting the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV enzyme

Authors Al-Balas QA, Sowaileh MF, Hassan MA, Qandil AM, Alzoubi KH, Mhaidat NM, Almaaytah AM, Khabour OF

Received 24 August 2013

Accepted for publication 6 November 2013

Published 16 January 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 129—163

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S53522

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Qosay A Al-Balas,1 Munia F Sowaileh,1 Mohammad A Hassan,1 Amjad M Qandil,1,2 Karem H Alzoubi,3 Nizar M Mhaidat,3 Ammar M Almaaytah,4 Omar F Khabour5

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 5Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

Background: The dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) enzyme is considered a pivotal target for controlling normal blood sugar levels in the body. Incretins secreted in response to ingestion of meals enhance insulin release to the blood, and DPP-IV inactivates these incretins within a short period and stops their action. Inhibition of this enzyme escalates the action of incretins and induces more insulin to achieve better glucose control in diabetic patients. Thus, inhibition of this enzyme will lead to better control of blood sugar levels.
Methods: In this study, computer-aided drug design was used to help establish a novel N-substituted aminobenzamide scaffold as a potential inhibitor of DPP-IV. CDOCKER software available from Discovery Studio 3.5 was used to evaluate a series of designed compounds and assess their mode of binding to the active site of the DPP-IV enzyme. The designed compounds were synthesized and tested against a DPP-IV enzyme kit provided by Enzo Life Sciences. The synthesized compounds were characterized using proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and determination of melting point.
Results: Sixty-nine novel compounds having an N-aminobenzamide scaffold were prepared, with full characterization. Ten of these compounds showed more in vitro activity against DPP-IV than the reference compounds, with the most active compounds scoring 38% activity at 100 µM concentration.
Conclusion: The N-aminobenzamide scaffold was shown in this study to be a valid scaffold for inhibiting the DPP-IV enzyme. Continuing work could unravel more active compounds possessing the same scaffold.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, aminobenzamide derivatives, hypoglycemic activity, CDOCKER software

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