Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 8 » Issue 1

Novel intravaginal nanomedicine for the targeted delivery of saquinavir to CD4+ immune cells

Authors Yang S, Chen Y, Gu K, Dash A, Sayre CL, Davies NM, Ho EA

Received 19 April 2013

Accepted for publication 24 May 2013

Published 8 August 2013 Volume 2013:8(1) Pages 2847—2858


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Download Article [PDF] 

Sidi Yang,1,2 Yufei Chen,1,2 Kaien Gu,1,2 Alicia Dash,1,2 Casey L Sayre,1 Neal M Davies,1 Emmanuel A Ho1,2

1Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory for Drug Delivery and Biomaterials, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada

Abstract: The goal of this study was to develop and characterize an intravaginal nanomedicine for the active targeted delivery of saquinavir (SQV) to CD4+ immune cells as a potential strategy to prevent or reduce HIV infection. The nanomedicine was formulated into a vaginal gel to provide ease in self-administration and to enhance retention within the vaginal tract. SQV-encapsulated nanoparticles (SQV-NPs) were prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) and conjugated to antihuman anti-CD4 antibody. Antibody-conjugated SQV-NPs (Ab-SQV-NPs) had an encapsulation efficiency (EE%) of 74.4% ± 3.7% and an antibody conjugation efficiency (ACE%) of 80.95% ± 1.10%. Over 50% of total loaded SQV was released from NPs over 3 days. NPs were rapidly taken up by Sup-T1 cells, with more than a twofold increase in the intracellular levels of SQV when delivered by Ab-SQV-NPs in comparison to controls 1 hour post-treatment. No cytotoxicity was observed when vaginal epithelial cells were treated for 24 hours with drug-free Ab-NPs (1,000 µg/mL), 1% HEC placebo gel (200 mg/mL), or 1% HEC gel loaded with drug-free Ab-NPs (5 mg NPs/g gel, 200 mg/mL of gel mixture). Overall, we described an intravaginal nanomedicine that is nontoxic and can specifically deliver SQV into CD4+ immune cells. This platform may demonstrate potential utility in its application as postexposure prophylaxis for the treatment or reduction of HIV infection, but further studies are required.

Keywords: nanoparticles, saquinavir, antibody conjugation, intravaginal gel, HIV/AIDS, microbicide

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]