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Novel application of trimethyl chitosan as an adjuvant in vaccine delivery

Authors Malik A, Gupta M, Gupta V, Gogoi H, Bhatnagar R

Received 19 February 2018

Accepted for publication 5 May 2018

Published 23 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 7959—7970

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S165876

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Farooq Shiekh

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster


Anshu Malik,* Manish Gupta,* Vatika Gupta, Himanshu Gogoi, Rakesh Bhatnagar

Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: The application of natural carbohydrate polysaccharides for antigen delivery and its adjuvanation potential has garnered interest in the scientific community in the recent years. These biomaterials are considered favorable candidates for adjuvant development due to their desirable properties like enormous bioavailability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, stability, affordability, and immunostimulating ability. Chitosan is the one such extensively studied natural polymer which has been appreciated for its excellent applications in pharmaceuticals. Trimethyl chitosan (TMC), a derivative of chitosan, possesses these properties. In addition it has the properties of high aqueous solubility, high charge density, mucoadhesive, permeation enhancing (ability to cross tight junction), and stability over a range of ionic conditions which makes the spectrum of its applicability much broader. It has also been seen to perform analogously to alum, complete Freund’s adjuvant, incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate adjuvanation, which justifies its role as a potent adjuvant. Although many review articles detailing the applications of chitosan in vaccine delivery are available, a comprehensive review of the applications of TMC as an adjuvant is not available to date. This article provides a comprehensive overview of structural and chemical properties of TMC which affect its adjuvant characteristics; the efficacy of various delivery routes for TMC antigen combination; and the recent advances in the elucidation of its mechanism of action.

Keywords: trimethyl chitosan, chitosan, vaccine delivery, adjuvant, polymer

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