Back to Journals » Nature and Science of Sleep » Volume 5

Nonspecific pain is a marker for hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing evaluation for sleep disorders: a pilot study

Authors McCarty DE, Reddy A, Keigley Q, Kim PY, Cohen S, Marino AA

Received 11 January 2013

Accepted for publication 5 February 2013

Published 9 March 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 37—42


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

David E McCarty,1 Aronkumar Reddy,1 Quinton Keigley,2 Paul Y Kim,1 Stephen Cohen,2 Andrew A Marino1

1Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, Shreveport, LA, USA

Background: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that serum vitamin D levels are abnormally low in sleep clinic patients admitting to chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain and to assess the associated risk factors. A secondary purpose was to identify a clinical biomarker for vitamin D deficiency.
Methods: We enrolled 153 consecutive patients who admitted to the presence of chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain during a comprehensive sleep evaluation at a specialist sleep medicine clinic within an academic center. Venous blood sampling was performed for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D < 20 ng/mL) were identified by odds ratios. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed with 10-fold cross-validation to identify a biomarker for vitamin D deficiency calculated by linear discriminant analysis.
Results: The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 19.8 ± 11.1, with 54% of the study population having vitamin D deficiency. This mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was lower than that observed historically in healthy controls, and was either similar or lower than in all but one representative historical cohort formed on the basis of chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency were black ethnicity, age < 60 years, and obesity. These risk factors were identified both in the entire cohort and separately in subgroups with and without obstructive sleep apnea. The biomarker (based on race, age, and body mass index) had a sensitivity and specificity for predicting vitamin D deficiency of 0.73 and 0.74, respectively.
Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in patients with sleep disorders and chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain on evaluation in a sleep medicine clinic. Vitamin D deficiency was reliably estimated in the study population using a biomarker derived from common demographic characteristics.

Keywords: vitamin D, biomarker, pain, sleep, linear discriminant analysis, receiver-operating analysis

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Readers of this article also read:

Hematuria following Botox treatment for upper limb spasticity: a case report

Lo TC, Yeung ST, Lee S, Chang EY

Journal of Pain Research 2015, 8:619-622

Published Date: 14 September 2015

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010