Nobiletin-loaded micelles reduce ovariectomy-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis
Authors Wang Y, Xie J, Ai Z, Su J
Received 28 April 2019
Accepted for publication 30 August 2019
Published 26 September 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 7839—7849
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun
Yabing Wang,1 Jian Xie,1 Zexin Ai,2 Jiansheng Su1
1Department of Prosthodontics, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, Shanghai 200072, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, Shanghai 200072, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Jiansheng Su
Department of Prosthodontics, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, Shanghai 200072, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 215 672 2215
Fax +86 216 652 4025
Background: Nobiletin (NOB), a polymethoxy flavonoid, possesses anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, has been reported that it played role in anti-osteoporosis treatment. However, previous research did not focus on practical use due to lack of hydrophilicity and cytotoxicity at high concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a therapeutic formulation for osteoporosis based on the utilization of NOB.
Methods: In this study, NOB-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(e-caprolactone) (NOB-PEG-PCL) was prepared by dialysis method. The effects on osteoclasts and anti-osteoporosis functions were investigated in a RANKL-induced cell model and ovariectomized (OVX) mice.
Results: Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy examination results revealed that the NOB-PEG-PCL had a round shape, with a mean diameter around 124 nm. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 76.34±3.25% and 7.60±0.48%, respectively. The in vitro release of NOB from NOB-PEG-PCL showed a remarkably sustained releasing characteristic and could be retained at least 48 hrs in pH 7.4 PBS. Anti-osteoclasts effects demonstrated that the NOB-PEG-PCL significantly inhibited the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells stimulated by RANKL. Furthermore, the NOB-PEG-PCL did not produce cytotoxicity on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). The mRNA expressions of genetic markers of osteoclasts including TRAP and cathepsin K were signiﬁcantly decreased in the presence of NOB-PEG-PCL. In addition, the NOB-PEG-PCL inhibited OC differentiation of BMMs through RANKL-induced MAPK signal pathway. After administration of the NOB-PEG-PCL, NOB-PEG-PCL prevented bone loss and improved bone density in OVX mice. These findings suggest that NOB-PEG-PCL might have great potential in the treatment of osteoporosis.
Conclusion: The results suggested that NOB-PEG-PCL micelles could effectively prevent NOB fast release from micelles and extend circulation time. The NOB-PEG-PCL delivery system may be a promising way to prevent and treat osteoporosis.
Keywords: nobiletin, micelles, TRAP, ovariectomized (OVX) mice