Next-generation calcineurin inhibitors in development for the prevention of organ rejection
Osama Gheith, Torki Al-Otaibi, Hany Mansour
Department of Nephrology, Hamed Al-Essa Organ Transplant Center, Ibn Sina Hospital, Shuwaikh, Kuwait
Abstract: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) remain the cornerstone of immunosuppression after renal transplantation despite their adverse effects. Some CNIs have well known negative impacts on the cardiovascular system, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), neurotoxicity, hypertrichosis, and nephrotoxicity. Many clinical trials dealing with CNI avoidance or elimination were associated with higher risk of rejection of the transplanted organ. New generation CNIs are concerned with modifying CNI molecules so that they become more potent and are suitable for patients with suboptimal adherence with less adverse effects. In this review, we address these issues.
Keywords: calcineurin inhibitors, organ transplant, rejection
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