New treatments in the management of type 2 diabetes: a critical appraisal of saxagliptin
Dept Medicine IV, Tübingen University, Otfried-Müller-Str, 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
Abstract: Saxagliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4 inhibitor) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with a duration profile for once daily dosing. It is highly selective for DPP-4 in comparison to other enzymes of the dipeptidyl peptidase family. DPP-4 inhibitors elevate plasma concentrations of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). This effect results in a glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion and an inhibition of glucagon secretion without an intrinsic risk for hypoglycemia. In comparison to sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones that promote weight gain, DPP-4 inhibitors are weight neutral. Saxagliptin has been approved by the FDA for the US and by the EMEA for Europe in 2009. Clinical trials showed a dose-dependent inhibition of DPP-4 by saxagliptin in doses ranging from 2.5 to 100 mg daily without serious side effects. Type 2 diabetic patients receiving 5 mg to 10 mg saxagliptin once daily had a significant lowering of HbA1c and glycemic parameters along with good tolerability and safety. Saxagliptin has demonstrated a good efficacy for glycemic parameters in various patient populations either in monotherapy or in combination with metformin and other oral antidiabetic drugs as well as a favorable cardiovascular profile. With its high selectivity for DPP-4 and its clinical and cardiovascular profile, saxagliptin is an attractive novel DPP-4 inhibitor.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes, diabetes therapy, DPP-4 inhibitors, incretin based therapy, GLP-1, saxagliptin
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