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New optical sensing technique of tissue viability and blood flow based on nanophotonic iterative multi-plane reflectance measurements

Authors Yariv I, Haddad M, Duadi H, Motiei M, Fixler D

Received 5 August 2016

Accepted for publication 2 September 2016

Published 11 October 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 5237—5244

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S119130

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Inbar Yariv,1 Menashe Haddad,2,3 Hamootal Duadi,1 Menachem Motiei,1 Dror Fixler1

1Faculty of Engineering and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 3Mayanei Hayeshua Medical Center, Benei Brak, Israel

Abstract: Physiological substances pose a challenge for researchers since their optical properties change constantly according to their physiological state. Examination of those substances noninvasively can be achieved by different optical methods with high sensitivity. Our research suggests the application of a novel noninvasive nanophotonics technique, ie, iterative multi-plane optical property extraction (IMOPE) based on reflectance measurements, for tissue viability examination and gold nanorods (GNRs) and blood flow detection. The IMOPE model combines an experimental setup designed for recording light intensity images with the multi-plane iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for reconstructing the reemitted light phase and calculating its standard deviation (STD). Changes in tissue composition affect its optical properties which results in changes in the light phase that can be measured by its STD. We have demonstrated this new concept of correlating the light phase STD and the optical properties of a substance, using transmission measurements only. This paper presents, for the first time, reflectance based IMOPE tissue viability examination, producing a decrease in the computed STD for older tissues, as well as investigating their organic material absorption capability. Finally, differentiation of the femoral vein from adjacent tissues using GNRs and the detection of their presence within blood circulation and tissues are also presented with high sensitivity (better than computed tomography) to low quantities of GNRs (<3 mg).

Keywords: Gerchberg-Saxton, optical properties, gold nanorods, blood vessel, tissue viability, reflectance, scattering

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