New and emerging agents in the management of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients
Service des Maladies Infectieuses, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse, France
Abstract: Lipodystrophy remains a major long-term complication in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients under antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Patients may present with lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy or both. The choice of treatments to improve fat redistribution depends on the form of lipodystrophy and its duration. Measures known to improve lipoatrophy are switches in ARV therapy (stavudine or zidovudine to abacavir or tenofovir) and filling interventions. Pioglitazone may be added to these measures, although any benefits appear small. Uridine and leptin were found to be disappointing so far. Regarding lipohypertrophy, diet and exercise, recombinant human growth hormone, and metformin may reduce visceral fat, but may worsen subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Surgical therapy may be required. Attractive pharmacologic treatments include growth hormone-releasing factor and leptin. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors are promising therapeutic targets to explore.
Keywords: lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, lipodystrophy, treatment, HIV, AIDS
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