Nanotoxicology of Dendrimers in the Mammalian Heart: ex vivo and in vivo Administration of G6 PAMAM Nanoparticles Impairs Recovery of Cardiac Function Following Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
Received 1 April 2020
Accepted for publication 20 May 2020
Published 19 June 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 4393—4405
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Fawzi Babiker,1 Ibrahim F Benter,2 Saghir Akhtar3
1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Health Science Center, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus, Republic of Cyprus; 3College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
Correspondence: Fawzi Babiker
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Health Science Center, Kuwait University, PO Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait
, Tel +965 24636360
Fax +965 25338937
College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, PO Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
Tel +974-4403 7865
Aim: The effects of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on the mammalian heart are not completely understood. In this study, we have investigated the effects of a sixth-generation cationic dendrimer (G6 PAMAM) on cardiac function in control and diabetic rat hearts following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury.
Methods: Isolated hearts from healthy non-diabetic (Ctr) male Wistar rats were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). LV contractility and hemodynamics data were computed digitally whereas cardiac damage following I/R injury was assessed by measuring cardiac enzymes. For ex vivo acute exposure experiments, G6 PAMAM was administered during the first 10 mins of reperfusion in Ctr animals. In chronic in vivo studies, nondiabetic rats (Ctr) received either vehicle or daily i.p. injections of G6 PAMAM (40 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Diabetic (D) animals received either vehicle or daily i.p. injections of G6 PAMAM (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The impact of G6 PAMAM on pacing-postconditioning (PPC) was also studied in Ctr and D rats.
Results: In ex vivo studies, acute administration of G6 PAMAM to isolated Ctr hearts during reperfusion dose-dependently impaired recovery of cardiac hemodynamics and vascular dynamics parameters following I/R injury. Chronic daily i.p. injections of G6 PAMAM significantly (P< 0.01) impaired recovery of cardiac function following I/R injury in nondiabetic animals but this was not generally observed in diabetic animals except for CF which was impaired by about 50%. G6 PAMAM treatment completely blocked the protective effects of PPC in the Ctr animals.
Conclusion: Acute ex vivo or chronic in vivo treatment with naked G6 PAMAM dendrimer can significantly compromise recovery of non-diabetic hearts from I/R injury and can further negate the beneficial effects of PPC. Our findings are therefore extremely important in the nanotoxicological evaluation of G6 PAMAM dendrimers for potential clinical applications in physiological and pathological settings.
Keywords: PAMAM, postconditioning, diabetes, ischemia, reperfusion
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