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Nanoscaled and microscaled parallel topography promotes tenogenic differentiation of ASC and neotendon formation in vitro

Authors Zhou KL, Feng B, Wang WB, Jiang YK, Zhang W, Zhou GD, Jiang T, Cao YL, Liu W

Received 3 January 2018

Accepted for publication 28 March 2018

Published 4 July 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 3867—3881

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S161423

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang


Kaili Zhou,1,* Bei Feng,2,* Wenbo Wang,1,* Yongkang Jiang,1 Wenjie Zhang,1,3 Guangdong Zhou,1,3 Ting Jiang,4,* Yilin Cao,1,3 Wei Liu1,3

1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University – School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University – School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Nanchong Central Hospital, the Second Clinical College of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Topography at different scales plays an important role in directing mesenchymal stem cell differentiation including adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and the differential effect remains to be investigated.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the similarity and difference between micro- and nanoscaled aligned topography for inducing tenogenic differentiation of human ASCs (hASCs).
Methods: Parallel microgrooved PDMS membrane and a parallel aligned electrospun nanofibers of gelatin/poly-ε-caprolactone mixture were employed as the models for the study.
Results: Aligned topographies of both microscales and nanoscales could induce an elongated cell shape with parallel alignment, as supported by quantitative cell morphology analysis (cell area, cell body aspect, and cell body major axis angle). qPCR analysis also demonstrated that the aligned topography at both scales could induce the gene expressions of various tenogenic markers at the 7th day of in vitro culture including tenomodulin, collagen I and collagen VI, decorin, tenascin-C and biglycan, but with upregulated expression of scleraxis and tenascin-C only in microscaled topography. Additionally, tenogenic differentiation at the 3rd day was confirmed only at microscale. Furthermore, microscaled topography was confirmed for its tenogenic induction at tissue level as neotendon tissue was formed with the evidence of mature type I collagen fibers only in parallel aligned polyglycolic acid (PGA) microfibers after in vitro culture with mouse ASCs. Instead, only fat tissue was formed in random patterned PGA microfibers.
Conclusion: Both microscaled and nanoscaled aligned topographies could induce tenogenic differentiation of hASCs and micro-scaled topography seemed better able to induce elongated cell shape and stable tenogenic marker expression when compared to nanoscaled topography. The microscaled inductive effect was also confirmed at tissue level by neotendon formation in vitro.

Keywords:
microscales and nanoscales, aligned topography, human adipose-derived stem cells, tenogenic differentiation, microscaled PGA fibers

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