Nanoparticles containing allotropes of carbon have genotoxic effects on glioblastomamultiforme cells
Received 15 February 2014
Accepted for publication 29 March 2014
Published 15 May 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 2409—2417
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Mateusz Hinzmann,1 Slawomir Jaworski,1 Marta Kutwin,1 Joanna Jagiello,2 Rafal Kozinski,2 Mateusz Wierzbicki,1 Marta Grodzik,1 Ludwika Lipinska,2 Ewa Sawosz,1 Andrè Chwalibog3
1Division of Nanobiotechnology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 2Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Abstract: The carbon-based nanomaterial family consists of nanoparticles containing allotropes of carbon, which may have a number of interactions with biological systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles comprised of pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide, graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond in a U87 cell line. The scope of the work consisted of structural analysis of the nanoparticles using transmission electron microscopy, evaluation of cell morphology, and assessment of cell viability by Trypan blue assay and level of DNA fragmentation of U87 cells after 24 hours of incubation with 50 µg/mL carbon nanoparticles. DNA fragmentation was studied using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Incubation with nanoparticles containing the allotropes of carbon did not alter the morphology of the U87 cancer cells. However, incubation with pristine graphene and reduced graphene oxide led to a significant decrease in cell viability, whereas incubation with graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond led to a smaller decrease in cell viability.
The results of a comet assay demonstrated that pristine graphene, reduced graphene oxide, graphite, and ultradispersed detonation diamond caused DNA damage and were therefore genotoxic in U87 cells, whereas graphene oxide was not.
Keywords: nanostructures, graphene, graphite, diamond, glioblastoma multiforme, geno toxicity
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