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Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems For The Treatment Of IBD: Current Perspectives

Authors Yang C, Merlin D

Received 21 September 2019

Accepted for publication 19 October 2019

Published 13 November 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 8875—8889

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S210315

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J. Webster


Chunhua Yang,1 Didier Merlin1,2

1Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Digestive Disease Research Group, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA; 2Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA 30033, USA

Correspondence: Chunhua Yang
Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Digestive Disease Research Group, Georgia State University, Piedmont Ave SE, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
Tel +1 404 413 3597
Fax +1 404 413 3580
Email cyang16@gsu.edu

Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which mainly consists of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. The traditional treatment strategies relied on frequent administration of high dosages of medications, including antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, biologics, and immunomodulators, with the goal of reducing inflammation. Some of these medications were effective in alleviating the early-stage inflammatory symptoms, but their long-term efficacies were compromised by the accumulation of toxicities. Recently, nanoparticle (NP)-based drugs have been widely studied for their potential to solve such problems. Various mechanisms/strategies, including size-, charge-, pH-, pressure-, degradation-, ligand-receptor-, and microbiome- dependent drug delivery systems, have been exploited in preclinical studies. A certain number of NP delivery systems have sought to target drugs to the inflamed intestine. Although several NP-based drugs have entered clinical trials for the treatment of IBD, most have failed due to premature drug release, weak targeting ability, and the high immune toxicity of some of the synthetic nanomaterials that have been used to fabricate the NPs. Therefore, there is still a need for rationally designed and stable NP drug delivery system that can specifically target drugs to the disease site, prolong the drug’s residence time, and minimize systemic side effects. This review will analyze the current state of the art in NP-mediated drug delivery for IBD treatment. We will focus on topics such as deliverable targets (at the tissue or cellular level) for treating inflammation; the target-homing NP materials that can interact with such targets; and the major administration routes for treating IBD. These discussions will integrate notable trends in the research and development of IBD medications, including multi-responsive NP-mediated delivery and naturally-derived targeting NPs. Finally, current challenges and future directions will be presented in the hopes of advancing the study of NP-mediated strategies for treating IBD.

Keywords: intestinal bowel disease, nanoparticle, multi-responsive, edible-plant derived, exosome, targeted drug delivery

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