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Nanomedicine for the SARS-CoV-2: State-of-the-Art and Future Prospects

Authors Varahachalam SP, Lahooti B, Chamaneh M, Bagchi S, Chhibber T, Morris K, Bolanos JF, Kim NY, Kaushik A

Received 24 September 2020

Accepted for publication 25 December 2020

Published 22 January 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 539—560


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 6

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Sree Pooja Varahachalam,1 Behnaz Lahooti,1 Masoumeh Chamaneh,1 Sounak Bagchi,1 Tanya Chhibber,1 Kevin Morris,2 Joe F Bolanos,3 Nam-Young Kim,4 Ajeet Kaushik5

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jerry H. Hodge School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC), Amarillo, TX 79106, USA; 2Maharashtra University of Health Sciences (MUHS), Nashik, Maharashtra 422004, India; 3Facultad De Ciencias De La Salud “Dr.Luis Edmundo Vasquez” Santa Tecla, Universidad Dr. Jose Matias Delgado, Cd Merliot, El Salvador; 4RFIC Bio Center, Department of Electronics Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, South Korea; 5NanoBioTech Laboratory, Department of Natural Sciences, Division of Sciences, Art, and Mathematics, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL 3385, USA

Correspondence: Ajeet Kaushik
NanoBioTech Laboratory, Department of Natural Sciences, Division of Sciences, Art, and Mathematics, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL 3385, USA

Abstract: The newly emerged ribonucleic acid (RNA) enveloped human beta-coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection caused the COVID-19 pandemic, severely affects the respiratory system, and may lead to death. Lacking effective diagnostics and therapies made this pandemic challenging to manage since the SARS-CoV-2 transmits via human-to-human, enters via ACE2 and TMPSSR2 receptors, and damages organs rich in host cells, spreads via symptomatic carriers and is prominent in an immune-compromised population. New SARS-CoV-2 informatics (structure, strains, like-cycles, functional sites) motivated bio-pharma experts to investigate novel therapeutic agents that act to recognize, inhibit, and knockdown combinations of drugs, vaccines, and antibodies, have been optimized to manage COVID-19. However, successful targeted delivery of these agents to avoid off-targeting and unnecessary drug ingestion is very challenging. To overcome these obstacles, this mini-review projects nanomedicine technology, a pharmacologically relevant cargo of size within 10 to 200 nm, for site-specific delivery of a therapeutic agent to recognize and eradicate the SARS-CoV-2, and improving the human immune system. Such combinational therapy based on compartmentalization controls the delivery and releases of a drug optimized based on patient genomic profile and medical history. Nanotechnology could help combat COVID-19 via various methods such as avoiding viral contamination and spraying by developing personal protective equipment (PPE) to increase the protection of healthcare workers and produce effective antiviral disinfectants surface coatings capable of inactivating and preventing the virus from spreading. To quickly recognize the infection or immunological response, design highly accurate and sensitive nano-based sensors. Development of new drugs with improved activity, reduced toxicity, and sustained release to the lungs, as well as tissue targets; and development of nano-based immunizations to improve humoral and cellular immune responses. The desired and controlled features of suggested personalized therapeutics, nanomedicine, is a potential therapy to manage COVID-19 successfully. The state-of-the-art nanomedicine, challenges, and prospects of nanomedicine are carefully and critically discussed in this report, which may serve as a key platform for scholars to investigate the role of nanomedicine for higher efficacy to manage the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, nanomedicine, personalized COVID-19 management, drug delivery

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