Nanomedicine for glaucoma: liposomes provide sustained release of latanoprost in the eye
Jayaganesh V Natarajan1*, Marcus Ang2*, Anastasia Darwitan1, Sujay Chattopadhyay3, Tina T Wong2, Subbu S Venkatraman1
1Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; 3Polymer Division, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: To report the development and therapeutic evaluation of a liposomal nanocarrier for sustained release of latanoprost, in the rabbit eye.
Methods: We fabricated latanoprost-loaded egg-phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) liposomes using the film hydration technique. The delivery vehicles were nano-sized (Z avg = 109 ± 18 nm), had a narrow poly dispersity index (PDI = 0.19 ± 0.04), and a very high loading efficiency (94% ± 5%). Based on in vitro data, we evaluated this formulation for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in rabbit eyes. Following a single subconjunctival injection of the latanoprost loaded formulation, the eyes were clinically monitored and the IOP recorded.
Results: Latanoprost-loaded EggPC liposomes demonstrated a high drug/lipid mole ratio of 0.181, remained stable for at least 6 months on storage (4°C), and at least 1 month at 25°C. A slow and sustained release of 60% of latanoprost was achieved by 14 days in the in vitro release study. The same formulation demonstrated a greater sustained IOP lowering effect compared with daily administration of topical latanoprost beyond 90 days (4.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.5 ± 0.9 mmHg; P < 0.001). No signs of inflammation were evident in the eyes from slit-lamp examination analysis.
Conclusion: The loading required for a long-term sustained delivery of latanoprost for up to 90 days in the rabbit eyes was achieved with EggPC liposomes. A single injection of latanoprost-loaded EggPC liposomes can lower the IOP for up to 90 days, with a greater IOP lowering effect than daily topical administration of latanoprost.
Keywords: nanomedicine, nanoliposomes, EggPC, latanoprost, sustained ocular delivery, glaucoma
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