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Nanoencapsulation of the sasanquasaponin from Camellia oleifera, its photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects

Authors Ye Y, Xing HT, Li Y

Received 24 June 2014

Accepted for publication 24 July 2014

Published 19 September 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 4475—4484

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S64313

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Yong Ye, Haiting Xing, Yue Li

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Sasanquasaponin, a bioactive compound isolated from seeds of Camellia oleifera, shows central effects in our previous research. In order to investigate its neuroprotective effects, a new kind of nanocapsule with photo responsiveness was designed to deliver sasanquasaponin into the brain and adjusted by red light. The nanocapsule was prepared using sasanquasaponin emulsified with soybean lecithin and cholesterol solution. The natural phaeophorbide from silkworm excrement as a photosensitizer was added in the lipid phase to make the nanocapsules photo responsive. The physicochemical properties of encapsulation efficiency, size distribution, morphology and stability were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Photo responsiveness was determined by the sasanquasaponin release in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer under the laser at 670 nm. The neuroprotective effects were evaluated by the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), decrease of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß in the brain, and amelioration of kainic acid-induced behavioral disorder in mice. The nanocapsules had higher encapsulation efficiency and stability when the phaeophorbide content was 2% of lecithin weight. The average size was 172.2 nm, distributed in the range of 142–220 nm. The phaeophorbide was scattered sufficiently in the outer lecithin layer of the nanocapsules and increased the drug release after irradiation. TH expression in brain tissues and locomotive activities in mice were reduced by kainic acid, but could be improved by the sasanquasaponin nanocapsules after tail vein injection with 15 minutes of irradiation at the nasal cavity. The sasanquasaponin took effect through inflammatory alleviation in central tissues. The sasanquasaponin nanocapsules with phaeophorbide have photo responsiveness and neuroprotective effects under the irradiation of red light. This preparation presents a new approach to brain neuroprotection, and has potential for clinical application.

Keywords: sasanquasaponin, nanocapsule, photo responsiveness, neuroprotection, phaeophorbide, red light, drug delivery

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