Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 7

Nanobarcoding: detecting nanoparticles in biological samples using in situ polymerase chain reaction

Authors Eustaquio T, Leary JF

Received 28 August 2012

Accepted for publication 21 September 2012

Published 2 November 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 5625—5639

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S37433

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Trisha Eustaquio, James F Leary

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Background: Determination of the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in a biological system, or NP biodistribution, is critical in evaluating an NP formulation for nanomedicine. Current methods to determine NP biodistribution are greatly inadequate, due to their limited detection thresholds. Herein, proof of concept of a novel method for improved NP detection based on in situ polymerase chain reaction (ISPCR), coined “nanobarcoding,” is demonstrated.
Methods: Nanobarcoded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NB-SPIONs) were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and hyperspectral imaging measurements. Cellular uptake of Cy5-labeled NB-SPIONs (Cy5-NB-SPIONs) was imaged by confocal microscopy. The feasibility of the nanobarcoding method was first validated by solution-phase PCR and “pseudo”-ISPCR before implementation in the model in vitro system of HeLa human cervical adenocarcinoma cells, a cell line commonly used for ISPCR-mediated detection of human papilloma virus (HPV).
Results: Dynamic light-scattering measurements showed that NB conjugation stabilized SPION size in different dispersion media compared to that of its precursor, carboxylated SPIONs (COOH-SPIONs), while the zeta potential became more positive after NB conjugation. Hyperspectral imaging confirmed NB conjugation and showed that the NB completely covered the SPION surface. Solution-phase PCR and pseudo-ISPCR showed that the expected amplicons were exclusively generated from the NB-SPIONs in a dose-dependent manner. Although confocal microscopy revealed minimal cellular uptake of Cy5-NB-SPIONs at 50 nM over 24 hours in individual cells, ISPCR detected definitive NB-SPION signals inside HeLa cells over large sample areas.
Conclusion: Proof of concept of the nanobarcoding method has been demonstrated in in vitro systems, but the technique needs further development before its widespread use as a standardized assay.

Keywords: nanomedicine, in situ PCR, single cell, DNA-functionalized nanoparticles

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Other articles by this author:

Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

White-Schenk D, Shi R, Leary JF

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:923-938

Published Date: 29 January 2015

Nanoparticles for multimodal in vivo imaging in nanomedicine

Key J, Leary JF

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:711-726

Published Date: 29 January 2014

Readers of this article also read:

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

A new recombinant factor VIII: from genetics to clinical use

Santagostino E

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014, 8:2507-2515

Published Date: 12 December 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012