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Myositis Specific Autoantibodies: A Clinical Perspective

Authors Alenzi FM

Received 17 September 2019

Accepted for publication 10 December 2019

Published 14 January 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 9—14


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Chuan-Ju Liu

Fahidah M Alenzi

Department of Clinical Science, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Fahidah M Alenzi
Department of Clinical Science, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract: Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition characterized by myositis and variable skin manifestation. The existence of myositis specific autoantibodies usually manifests with varying degrees of skin or muscle inflammations. The condition has a well-established association with most clinical phenotypes, and these autoantibodies are useful in informing the diagnosis, management and prognosis of the disease. DM-specific autoantibodies include anti-MDA5, anti-NXP2, anti-SAE, anti-Mi-2, anti-ARS, anti-TIF1-gamma. Anti-Mi-2 antibodies are widely associated with DM cases that exhibit mainly cutaneous symptoms, such as cuticular overgrowths, Gottron’s papules while being less susceptible to complications like interstitial lung disease or malignancy. The most distinct clinical features of patients with anti-SAE antibodies are their high prevalence of dysphagia and cutaneous manifestations that antecede the development of myopathies. In addition, DM patients with positive anti-PL-7 antibodies tend to have milder myositis characterized by low levels of creatine kinase as compared to patients with positive anti-Jo-1 antibodies. The anti-NXP2 antibodies are associated with transcriptional regulation and production of various proteins targeted by other DM antibodies, while anti- TIF1-γ. facilitates the transcription of deoxyribonucleic acids and regulates the growth and subsequent differentiation of body cells by controlling the signaling of TGF-β. The present review targets DM specific autoantibodies, considering their association, significance, and clinical presentation

Keywords: dermatomyositis, specific autoantibodies, clinical presentation

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