“My friend, the pain”: does altered body awareness affect the valence of pain descriptors?
Received 20 October 2018
Accepted for publication 27 February 2019
Published 27 May 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1721—1732
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Katherine Hanlon
G Galli,1 B Lenggenhager,2 G Scivoletto,1 AM Giannini,3 M Pazzaglia1,3
1IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy; 2Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Dipartimento di Psicologia, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Rome, Italy
Background: Pain is a marker of bodily status, that despite being aversive under most conditions, may also be perceived as a positive experience. However, how bodily states represent, define, and interpret pain signals, and how these processes might be reflected in common language, remains unclear.
Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore the relationship between bodily awareness, pain reactions, and descriptions. A list of pain-related terms was generated from open-ended interviews with persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), and 138 participants (persons with SCI, health professionals, and a healthy control group) rated each descriptor as representative of pain on a gradated scale. A lexical decision task was used to test the strength of the automatic association of the word “pain” with positive and negative concepts. The behavioral results were related to body awareness, experience of pain, and exposure to pain, by comparing the three groups.
Results: Higher positive and lower negative pain descriptors, as well as slower response times when categorizing pain as an unpleasant experience were found in the SCI group. The effect was not modulated by either the time since the injury or the present pain intensity, but it was linked to the level of subjective bodily awareness. Compared with the SCI group, health experts and non-experts both associated more quickly the word “pain” and unpleasant in the lexical decision task. However, while health professionals attributed positive linguistic qualities to pain, pain was exclusively associated with negative descriptors in healthy controls group.
Conclusions: These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and clinical implications. An awareness of bodily signals prominently affects both the sensory and linguistic responses in persons with SCI. Pain should be evaluated more broadly to understand and, by extension, to manage, experiences beyond its adverse side.
Keywords: spinal cord injury, chronic pain, lexical pain descriptors, positive representations of pain
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