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Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

Authors Milani P, Massacesi A, Moschini S, Setaccioli M, Bulone E, Tremolada G, Ciaccia S, Mantovani E, Morale D, Bergamini F

Received 15 March 2016

Accepted for publication 25 May 2016

Published 12 September 2016 Volume 2016:10 Pages 1749—1757


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Paolo Milani,1 Amedeo Massacesi,1 Stefania Moschini,1 Marco Setaccioli,1 Ennio Bulone,1 Gemma Tremolada,1 Stefano Ciaccia,1 Elena Mantovani,1 Daniela Morale,2 Fulvio Bergamini1

1Ophthalmology Department, Istituto Auxologico, 2Institute of Mathematics, Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

Purpose: To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) by fluorescein angio­graphy (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF).
Methods: This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years) and a mean refraction of -9.72 diopters (95% CI -8.74 to -10.70 diopters).
Results: Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%), with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3%) and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%). No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2%) eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4%) eyes. Papillary chorio­retinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%), a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%), and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4%) eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P<0.001). In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P<0.005). NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2%) and 27 (41.5%) eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3%) and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed) on AF (25/65, 38.4%). FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3%) and 48 (73.8%) eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P<0.001), absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P<0.05), and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P<0.01).
Conclusion: Tomographic, angiographic, AF, and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis.

Keywords: myopic neovascularization, pathologic myopia, fluorescein angiography, SD-OCT, imaging, CNV

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