Multifunctional Nanoparticles Encapsulating Astragalus Polysaccharide and Gold Nanorods in Combination with Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Breast Cancer
Authors Xiong J, Jiang B, Luo Y, Zou J, Gao X, Xu D, Du Y, Hao L
Received 17 January 2020
Accepted for publication 25 May 2020
Published 12 June 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 4151—4169
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Mian Wang
Jie Xiong,1 Binglei Jiang,1 Yong Luo,1 Jianzhong Zou,1 Xuan Gao,1 Die Xu,1 Yan Du,1,2 Lan Hao3
1State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, People’s Republic of China; 2Ultrasonography Department, The Fourth People’s Hospital of Chongqing, Central Hospital of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400014, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Ultrasound Imaging, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Jianzhong Zou
College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 13783002390
Purpose: Focused ultrasound (FUS) is a noninvasive method to produce thermal and mechanical destruction along with an immune-stimulatory effect against cancer. However, FUS ablation alone appears insufficient to generate consistent antitumor immunity. In this study, a multifunctional nanoparticle was designed to boost FUS-induced immune effects and achieve systemic, long-lasting antitumor immunity, along with imaging and thermal enhancement.
Materials and Methods: PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) were constructed by a simple double emulsion method, characterized, and tested for cytotoxicity. The abilities of PA imaging and thermal-synergetic ablation efficiency were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. The immune-synergistic effect on dendritic cell (DC) differentiation in vitro and the immune response in vivo were also evaluated.
Results: The obtained APS/AuNR/PLGA-PEG nanoparticles have an average diameter of 255.00± 0.1717 nm and an APS-loading efficiency of 54.89± 2.07%, demonstrating their PA imaging capability and high biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the as-prepared nanoparticles achieved a higher necrosis cell rate and induced apoptosis rate in an in vitro cell suspension assay, greater necrosis area and decreased energy efficiency factor (EEF) in an in vivo rabbit liver assay, and remarkable thermal-synergic performance. In particular, the nanoparticles upregulated the expression of MHC-II, CD80 and CD86 on cocultured DCs in vitro, followed by declining phagocytic function and enhanced interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (INF)-γ production. Furthermore, they boosted the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and IgG1 (P< 0.001) but not IgG2a. Immune promotion peaked on day 3 after FUS in vivo.
Conclusion: The multifunctional APS/AuNR/PLGA-PEG nanoparticles can serve as an excellent synergistic agent for FUS therapy, facilitating real-time imaging, promoting thermal ablation effects, and boosting FUS-induced immune effects, which have the potential to be used for further clinical FUS treatment.
Keywords: immune, immunoadjuvant, thermal ablation, PLGA, Chinese traditional medicine
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