Multi-ethnic differences in HbA1c, blood pressure, and low-density-lipid cholesterol control among South Africans living with type 2 diabetes after a 4-year follow-up
Received 17 August 2016
Accepted for publication 17 September 2016
Published 16 November 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 419—426
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Yacob Pinchevsky,1 Varada J Shukla,1 Neil Butkow,1 Tobias Chirwa,2 Frederick Raal3
1Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, 2Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 3Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Purpose: Our study set out to examine if disparities in control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) existed among an urban multi-ethnic cohort of South Africans, living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Patients and methods: This longitudinal, retrospective study consisted of 261 men and women with previously diagnosed T2DM who attended Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa across two time periods 2009 and 2013. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from consecutive medical records. The primary outcome was to determine achievements in HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C among ethnic groups using evidence-based goals.
Results: The mean age of the cohort was 64 (±10.6) years, females represented 55%, and the self-reported diabetes duration was 16 (±10.6) years as at 2013. Black Africans (42.9%, n=112 of 261) were more likely to reach the HbA1c target (<7%) and less likely to have had retinopathy, nephropathy, or cardiovascular disease. Over two-thirds of mixed-ancestry patients attained the BP target (<140/80 mmHg), while 90.2% of Caucasians achieved LDL-C goals (<2.5 mmol/L). Overall, across the ethnic groups studied, we found that HbA1c control deteriorated over time, although BP levels remained the same and LDL-C levels drastically improved.
Conclusion: There was poor control of HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C across all ethnic groups. Although a minority achieved recommended targets, some ethnic groups appeared to have worse control than others. Timely aggressive actions in particularly high-risk ethnic groups will prevent/delay the complications commonly associated with T2DM.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, ethnicity, HbA1c, blood pressure, LDL-C
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