Mu-Opioid Receptor Polymorphism Moderates Sensitivity to Parental Behaviors During Characterization of Personality Traits
Received 2 June 2020
Accepted for publication 28 August 2020
Published 22 September 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 2161—2167
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Taro Kishi
Keisuke Noto,1 Akihito Suzuki,1 Toshinori Shirata,1 Yoshihiko Matsumoto,1 Nana Takahashi,1 Kaoru Goto,2 Koichi Otani1
1Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan; 2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan
Correspondence: Toshinori Shirata Email firstname.lastname@example.org
Purpose: Attachment research shows that attachment experiences with parents in childhood influence the characterization of personality traits. Meanwhile, it is known that mu-opioid receptor function is involved in human attachment. Furthermore, a few studies suggest that the A118G polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is associated with altered mu-opioid receptor function. Thus, we examined if the OPRM1 polymorphism moderates the sensitivity to parental behaviors and thereby contributes to the characterization of personality traits.
Materials and Methods: Participants were 725 healthy Japanese. Parenting practices of their parents were evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) with the care and protection subscales. Personality was evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The OPRM1 A118G polymorphism was detected by a PCR method.
Results: Multiple regression analyses revealed significant effects of the interaction between the OPRM1 genotype and maternal protection on scores of the self-directedness and cooperativeness dimensions, while significant main effects of the OPRM1 genotype on scores of the TCI were not found. Further analyses showed that there were significant negative correlations between maternal protection scores and the two dimensional scores in the A/A and A/G genotypes with higher correlation coefficients in the former, but not in the G/G genotype.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that the OPRM1 polymorphism contributes to the characterization of personality traits by moderating the sensitivity to parental behaviors, especially maternal protection.
Keywords: OPRM1, attachment, personality, PBI, TCI, gene–environment interaction
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