Moxifloxacin in the management of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD
Authors Marc Miravitlles
Published 15 October 2007 Volume 2007:2(3) Pages 191—204
Servei de Pneumologia, Institut Clínic del Tòrax (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain
Abstract: Bacteria are isolated in more than 50% of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The most prevalent respiratory pathogens include Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis) microorganims. Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including atypicals and those resistant to most common antibiotics. The bioavailability and half-life of moxifloxacin provides potent bactericidal effects at a dose of 400 mg once daily. Among the fluoroquinolones, the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to minimal inhibitory concentration of moxifloxacin is the highest against S. pneumoniae. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated better eradication in exacerbations of CB and COPD compared with standard therapy, in particular, with macrolides. Patients treated with moxifloxacin showed a prolonged time to the next exacerbation and observational studies suggest that moxifloxacin induces a faster release of symptoms of exacerbation. Some guidelines recommend the use of moxifloxacin as first-line therapy in bacterial exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD and in patients with mild COPD with risk factors. The current article reviews the use of moxifloxacin in bacterial exacerbations of CB and COPD.
Keywords: moxifloxacin, antibiotics, exacerbations, chronic bronchitis, COPD