Motion style acupuncture therapy for shoulder pain: a randomized controlled trial
Received 8 January 2018
Accepted for publication 21 May 2018
Published 25 September 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 2039—2050
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Katherine Hanlon
Guang-Xia Shi,1 Bao-Zhen Liu,2 Jun Wang,3 Qing-Nan Fu,1 San-Feng Sun,2 Rui-Li Liang,2 Jing Li,3 Jian-Feng Tu,1 Cheng Tan,3 Cun-Zhi Liu4
1Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing100010, China; 2Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Huairou District Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 101400, China; 3Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing100010, China; 4Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100078, China
Background: Strategies for preventing the persistence of pain and disability beyond the acute phase in shoulder pain patients are critically needed. Conventional acupuncture therapy (CAT) or motion style acupuncture therapy (MSAT) alone results in relative improvements in painful conditions in shoulder pain patients; combined interventions may have more global effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MSAT vs CAT for shoulder pain.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial using a factorial design was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015. Patients with a primary complaint of one-sided shoulder pain participated at three study sites. Eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive MSAT plus minimal CAT (mCAT), CAT plus minimal MSAT (mMSAT), MSAT plus CAT, or mMSAT plus mCAT for 6 weeks in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change in shoulder pain intensity (measured using visual analog scale). The secondary outcomes included change in function of the shoulder joint (Constant–Murley score) and the health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 Health Survey). Moreover, perceived credibility of acupuncture was measured using the Treatment Credibility Scale. The outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6, 10, and 18 weeks after randomization. Analysis of covariance with the baseline score adjustment had been used to determine the primary end point. The between-group differences of MSAT vs mMSAT and CAT vs mCAT were estimated, respectively, after tests of interaction between the two-dimensional interventions. All main analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle.
Results: A total of 164 patients completed the study. MSAT was superior to mMSAT in alleviating pain intensity at 10 weeks (P=0.024), and it was maintained for 18 weeks (P=0.013). Statistically significant differences were found when comparing MSAT with mMSAT for improvement in shoulder function (6 weeks, P=0.01; 10 weeks, P=0.006; and 18 weeks, P=0.01), physical health (10 weeks, P=0.023 and 18 weeks, P=0.015), and mental health (18 weeks, P=0.05). No significant differences were found in CAT when compared with mCAT.
Conclusion: After 18 weeks of treatment, pain and joint functions are improved more with MSAT than with minimal motion style acupuncture or conventional acupuncture in patients with shoulder pain.
Keywords: motion style acupuncture, shoulder pain, acupuncture therapy, randomized controlled trial
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