Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Its Predictors Among HIV-Exposed Infants at an Outpatient Clinic for HIV/AIDS in Vietnam
Received 24 April 2020
Accepted for publication 28 June 2020
Published 15 July 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 253—261
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Bassel Sawaya
Rang Ngoc Nguyen,1,2 Quang Chanh Ton,2 Quang Hien Tran,2 Thi Kieu Linh Nguyen2
1Department of Pediatrics, Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Can Tho, Vietnam; 2Women and Children Hospital of an Giang, An Giang, Vietnam
Correspondence: Rang Ngoc Nguyen Tel +84 913106404
Background: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is decreasing worldwide; however, achieving the MTCT elimination target of 2% by 2020 and 0% by 2030 is challenging in resource-limited countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the evolution of the HIV transmission rate in infants from 2007 to 2018 and to identify the risk factors of HIV transmission among HIV-exposed infants in Vietnam.
Patients and Methods: A prospective cohort study of 608 HIV-exposed infants was conducted at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic (pOPC) of the Women and Children Hospital of An Giang, Vietnam between September 2007 and December 2019. A follow-up registration book was used to collect data, which were entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed by SPSS version 22.0. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify associations.
Results: A total of 608 HIV-exposed infant were enrolled in the study, of which 472 were included in the final analysis. The median age of infants at enrollment to follow-up was 6.3 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]=6.0– 6.9 weeks). A total of 42 infants out of 472 were infected with HIV, giving an overall MTCT rate of 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI)=6.4– 12.0). The transmission rate decreased from 27.9% in 2007 to 0% in 2018. Absence of maternal ARV (antiretrovirals) intervention before or during pregnancy (AOR=40.6, 95% CI=5.5– 308) and absence of ARV prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=1.1– 10.3) were significantly and independently associated with MTCT of HIV in this study.
Conclusion: There is a significant progress on the reduction of MTCT rate in An Giang, Vietnam. Absence of ART interventions for mothers and infants are significant factors associated with HIV transmission. Providing free ARV and increasing the coverage of ARV intervention for pregnant women are keys for reducing the MTCT rate in the future.
Keywords: HIV-exposed infants, antiretrovirals, MTCT of HIV, Vietnam
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