Mother to Child Transmission of HIV and Associated Factors Among HIV Exposed Infants at Public Health Facilities, Dessie Town, Ethiopia
Received 30 June 2019
Accepted for publication 28 November 2019
Published 12 December 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 343—350
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Bassel Sawaya
Yibeltal Asmamaw Yitayew,1 Daniel Mengistu Bekele,2 Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie,3 Zeleke Argaw Menji2
1Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie
Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia
Background: Vertical transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the primary route of infection among children. Ethiopia is among the top ten countries in the world with the highest burden of HIV infections among children. Therefore we aimed to assess mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and associated factors among HIV exposed infants (HEIs).
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using retrospective data collected from HEIs paired with their mothers who had received the services in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs from January 2014 to December 2017 in public health facilities in Dessie town. Data of a total of 313 HEIs paired with their mothers were obtained by using semi-structured data extraction proforma from their medical records. The data were processed in Epi-info version 126.96.36.199 and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals and p-value were used to identify significant factors.
Results: The prevalence of HIV among exposed infants was 3.8%. Absence of maternal antenatal care visit (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.17–17.99), home delivery (AOR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.04 −16.76), absence of antiretroviral intervention to the mother (AOR= 5.7, 95% CI: 1.10–29.36), and failure to initiate nevirapine prophylaxis for the infant (AOR = 5.3, 95% CI: 1.11 −25.44) were significant factors of MTCT of HIV.
Conclusion: Prevalence of MTCT of HIV was low (3.8%) in Dessie town public health facilities. Having ANC visit, delivery at health facility, maternal ARV drug intake, and infant ARV prophylaxis were the significant protective factors against MTCT of HIV. Promoting ANC service utilization among pregnant women and providing counseling as well as setting up linkage with PMTCT and giving ARV intervention to all HIV positive pregnant women and timely initiation of NVP prophylaxis to all HEIs should be recommended by the minister of health and health facilities.
Keywords: HIV, MTCT, HIV exposed infants, risk factors, Ethiopia
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