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More Than Half Prevalence of Protozoan Parasitic Infections Among Diarrheic Outpatients in Eastern Tigrai, Ethiopia, 2019; A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors Berhe B, Mardu F, Tesfay K, Legese H, Adhanom G, Haileslasie H, Gebremichail G, Tesfanchal B, Shishay N, Negash H

Received 13 November 2019

Accepted for publication 19 December 2019

Published 7 January 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 27—34

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S238493

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Joachim Wink


Brhane Berhe,1 Fitsum Mardu,1 Kebede Tesfay,1 Haftom Legese,2 Gebre Adhanom,2 Hagos Haileslasie,3 Gebremedhin Gebremichail,3 Brhane Tesfanchal,4 Niguse Shishay,5 Hadush Negash2

1Unite of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Science, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Tigrai, Ethiopia; 2Unite of Medical Microbiology, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Science, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Tigrai, Ethiopia; 3Unite of Hematology and Immuno-Hematology, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Science, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Tigrai, Ethiopia; 4Unite of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Science, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Tigrai, Ethiopia; 5Unite of Immunology, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Tigrai, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Brhane Berhe Adigrat, Tigrai, Ethiopia
Tel +251-9-21-89-19-16
Fax +251 344452170
Email birhaneberhe54@gmail.com

Background: Protozoan infections remain a major public health concern in Ethiopia, which causes malnutrition, protein and iron deficiencies, increment of health costs, hospitalization and long-term deleterious effects. In Tigrai, particularly, in the study area, there are limited literatures on the prevalence of protozoa and associated factors among diarrheic outpatients. Thus, aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of protozoan infections among diarrheic outpatients in Eastern Tigrai.
Methods: Health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Eastern Tigrai, Ethiopia from April to October 2019 among diarrheic outpatient in health facilities of Adigrat. Four hundred one eighteen study participants were included consecutively. The stool samples were examined via direct wet mount following formal-ether concentration technique. Both interviewer based and self-administrated questionnaires were used to collect demographic data and factors associated with protozoan infections. Data were analyzed and computed using BM SPSS statistics version 22.0. P-value=0.05 at 95% confidence interval declared statistically significant.
Results: Out of 418 diarrheic outpatients, the overall prevalence of protozoan infection was 59.3% (248/418). A higher percentage of intestinal protozoan infection was recorded for females 130 (31.1%). Using well water as a source of drinking, poor hand washing habits before eating, not home latrine, dirty and untrimmed fingernails were the most important risk factors identified. E. histolytica complex and Giardia duodenalis were the most predominant protozoan infections detected among diarrheic outpatients.
Conclusion: The present study showed that diarrheic outpatients in the study area were heavily infected with protozoan parasitic infection. E. histolytica complex and Giardia duodenalis were the most predominant protozoans detected among diarrheic outpatients. Using well water as a source of drinking, poor handwashing habit before eating, not having home latrine, dirty and untrimmed fingernails were most important risk factors identified. So, cooperative action and health education on preventive measure are needed to reduce protozoan infections in Tigrai, particularly in the study area. The present study showed that diarrheic outpatients in the study area were heavily infected with protozoan parasitic infection.

Keywords: Adigrat, diarrhea, Ethiopia, exposure factors, intestinal protozoa, outpatients

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