Mitochondrial stress and activation of PI3K and Akt survival pathway in bladder ischemia
Authors Yang JH, Siroky MB, Yalla SV, Azadzoi KM
Received 10 January 2017
Accepted for publication 6 April 2017
Published 10 June 2017 Volume 2017:9 Pages 93—100
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Venkateshwar Madka
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Jan Colli
Jing-Hua Yang,1 Mike B Siroky,1 Subbarao V Yalla,2 Kazem M Azadzoi3,4
1Department of Urology, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston University School of Medicine, 2Department of Urology, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, 3Department of Urology, 4Department of Pathology, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Purpose: Detrusor overactivity contributes to bothersome constellation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men and women as they age. However, the underlying mechanisms of non-obstructive detrusor overactivity and LUTS remain largely unknown. Growing evidence suggests that ischemia may be an independent factor in the development of non-obstructive bladder dysfunction. Our goal was to determine the effects of ischemia on detrusor function and voiding behavior and define redox-mediated cellular stress and cell survival signaling in the ischemic bladder.
Materials and methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into treatment (n=8) and control (n=8) groups. In the treatment group, iliac artery atherosclerosis and chronic bladder ischemia were induced. At 8 weeks after bladder ischemia, voiding patterns were examined in metabolic cages, cystometrograms were recorded in conscious animals, and then bladder blood flow was measured under general anesthesia. Bladder tissues were processed for assessment of transcription factors, markers of cellular and mitochondrial stress, mitochondrial respiration, and cell survival signaling pathway.
Results: Atherosclerotic occlusive disease spread from the common iliac arteries to the internal iliac and vesical arteries and produced sustained bladder ischemia. Studies in metabolic cages showed increased micturition frequency and decreased voided volume in bladder ischemia. Conscious cystometrograms produced consistent data showing significant increase in micturition frequency and decreased voided volume and bladder capacity. Voiding behavior and cystometric changes in bladder ischemia were associated with significant decrease in DNA binding activity of Nrf2, significant increase in cellular levels of stress protein Hsp70 and mitochondrial stress protein GRP75, and significant decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and upregulation of PI3K and Akt expression.
Conclusion: Chronic bladder ischemia may be a mediating variable in the development of detrusor overactivity in the non-obstructive bladder. The mechanism may involve ischemia-induced cellular stress, Nrf2 functional deficit, depression of mitochondrial respiration, and upregulation of PI3K/Akt cell survival signaling pathway.
Keywords: atherosclerosis, blood flow, redox, cellular stress, detrusor overactivity, survival signaling
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