miR-99a-5p acts as tumor suppressor via targeting to mTOR and enhances RAD001-induced apoptosis in human urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cells
Received 3 June 2016
Accepted for publication 24 July 2017
Published 4 January 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 239—252
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Faris Farassati
Te-Fu Tsai,1,* Ji-Fan Lin,2,* Kuang-Yu Chou,1 Yi-Chia Lin,1 Hung-En Chen,1
Thomas I-Sheng Hwang1,3–5
1Department of Urology, 2Central Laboratory, 3Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, 4Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University, 5Division of Urology, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Introduction: miR-99a-5p, known to play an important role in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulation, is downregulated in human bladder cancer. The study aimed to investigate the anticancer activity of miR-99a-5p and the possible mechanism associated with mTOR in bladder cancer cells.
Materials and methods: Vectors expressing miR-99a-5p were transfected into human urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (5637 and T24) cells. The level of miR-99a-5p was monitored by microRNA (miRNA) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Luciferase reporter assays were performed to verify the direct binding of miR-99a-5p to mTOR transcripts. The mTOR transcripts and protein levels were measured by QPCR and Western blot, respectively. Cell viability of miR-99a-5p-transfected cells was detected by tetrazolium salt (WST-1). Inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling was detected by the phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT using Western blot. The ability of miR-99a-5p to enhance RAD001-induced apoptosis was determined as the expression of cleaved caspase 3 and levels of DNA fragmentation.
Results: Transfection of miR-99a-5p-expressing vector elevated the expression level of miR-99a-5p up to sixfold compared to vector-only controls. The results from luciferase assay verified that miR-99a-5p directly binds to the predicted sequence in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of mTOR. The levels of mTOR RNA and protein were decreased in miR-99a-5p-transfected cells. Dual inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 by miR-99a-5p was confirmed by the decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (at Ser2448 and Ser2481), phospho-rpS6 and phospho-4EBP1. The phosphorylation of AKT was significantly inhibited in miR-99a-5p-transfected cells upon RAD001 treatment. Enforced expression of miR-99a-5p potentiated RAD001-induced apoptosis in these cells.
Conclusion: This is the first study showing that miR-99a-5p markedly inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells via dual inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2. Our data demonstrated that forced expression of miR-99a-5p inhibits the feedback of AKT survival pathway and enhances the induction of apoptosis in RAD001-treated bladder cancer cells.
Keywords: apoptosis, bladder cancer, miR-99a-5p, mTOR, RAD001
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