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Migrainous Infarction And Cerebral Vasospasm: Case Report And Literature Review

Authors Vinciguerra L, Cantone M, Lanza G, Bramanti A, Santalucia P, Puglisi V, Pennisi G, Bella R

Received 21 March 2019

Accepted for publication 19 July 2019

Published 21 October 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 2941—2950


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael Schatman

Luisa Vinciguerra,1 Mariagiovanna Cantone,2 Giuseppe Lanza,3,4 Alessia Bramanti,5 Paola Santalucia,1 Valentina Puglisi,1 Giovanni Pennisi,3 Rita Bella6

1Neurology Department and Stroke Unit, IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino Pulejo”, Messina, Italy; 2Neurology Department, “Sant’Elia” Hospital, Caltanissetta, Italy; 3Department of Surgery and Medical-Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 4Department of Neurology IC, Oasi Research Institute – IRCCS, Troina, Italy; 5Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent Systems (ISASI), IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino Pulejo”, Messina, Italy; 6Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technology, Section of Neurosciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

Correspondence: Luisa Vinciguerra
Neurology Department and Stroke Unit, IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino Pulejo”, Via Provinciale Palermo, Contrada Casazza, 98124 Messina, Italy
Tel +39 090 6012 8395
Fax +39 090 6012 8850

Abstract: Migrainous infarction (MI) is a rare complication of migraines that accounts for 0.5–1.5% of all ischemic strokes. Although the pathogenesis of MI is still debated, cortical spreading depression and the consequent biochemical cascade and hemodynamic changes are presumed to play an important role. Here we describe a case of MI and systematically review the literature on the complex and possibly bidirectional relationship between migraine and stroke. A 44-year-old female with history of migraine with visual aura presented at the Emergency Department due to a sudden onset of left limb paresis and hypoesthesia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed right fronto-parietal ischemic stroke. Two days after hospitalization, the patient experienced a prolonged visual aura and showed ultrasound evidence of intracranial artery vasospasm. To date, there have been 33 published articles on a total 119 patients with MI, although intracranial vasospasm has rarely been reported. Sustained hyperexcitability of cortical neurons, impairment of γ-aminobutyric acid inhibitory circuitry, altered serotonergic transmission, release of vasoconstrictive molecules, and cerebral blood flow changes have been proposed as pathogenic mechanisms of MI. The present case provides insight into the pathophysiological link between stroke and migraine, thus aiding clinicians in therapeutic decision-making although additional studies are needed to clarify the clinical, neuroradiological, and ultrasound findings that link MI and stroke-related migraine.

Keywords: biochemical change, migrainous cerebral ischemia, pathogenesis, vasospasm

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