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Microstructures, mechanical, and biological properties of a novel Ti-6V-4V/zinc surface nanocomposite prepared by friction stir processing

Authors Zhu C, Lv Y, Qian C, Ding Z, Jiao T, Gu X, Lu E, Wang L, Zhang F

Received 17 October 2017

Accepted for publication 15 January 2018

Published 28 March 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 1881—1898


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Chenyuan Zhu,1,2,* Yuting Lv,3,4,* Chao Qian,1,2,* Zihao Ding,3,5 Ting Jiao,1,2 Xiaoyu Gu,1,2 Eryi Lu,6 Liqiang Wang,3 Fuqiang Zhang1,2

1Department of Prosthodontics, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center of Stomatology, 3State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 4College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Department of Stomatology, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: The interaction between the material and the organism affects the survival rate of the orthopedic or dental implant in vivo. Friction stir processing (FSP) is considered a new solid-state processing technology for surface modification.
This study aims to strengthen the surface mechanical properties and promote the osteogenic capacity of the biomaterial by constructing a Ti-6Al-4V (TC4)/zinc (Zn) surface nanocomposites through FSP.
Methods: FSP was used to modify the surface of TC4. The microstructures and mechanical properties were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation and Vickers hardness. The biological properties of the modified surface were evaluated by the in vitro and in vivo study.
The results showed that nanocrystalline and numerous β regions, grain boundary a phase, coarser acicular α phase and finer acicular martensite α' appeared because of the severe plastic deformation caused by FSP, resulting in a decreased elastic modulus and an increased surface hardness. With the addition of Zn particles and the enhancement of hydrophilicity, the biocompatibility was greatly improved in terms of cell adhesion and proliferation. The in vitro osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells and rapid in vivo osseointegration were enhanced on the novel TC4/Zn metal matrix nanocomposite surface.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that this novel TC4/Zn surface nanocomposite achieved by FSP has significantly improved mechanical properties and biocompatibility, in addition to promoting osseointegration and thus has potential for dental and orthopedic applications.

Keywords: nanocomposite, friction stir processing, nanocrystalline/ultrafine grained, bone marrow stromal cells, cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation

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