Microbiology of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction: simple epiphora, acute dacryocystitis, and chronic dacryocystitis
Authors Pornpanich K, Luemsamran P, Leelaporn A, Suntisuk J, Tesavibul N, Lertsuwanroj B, Vangveeravong S
Received 10 November 2015
Accepted for publication 5 January 2016
Published 22 February 2016 Volume 2016:10 Pages 337—342
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Kanograt Pornpanich,1 Panitee Luemsamran,1 Amornrut Leelaporn,2 Jiraporn Santisuk,3 Nattaporn Tesavibul,1 Buntitar Lertsuwanroj,1 Sumalee Vangveeravong1
1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Eye Surgery Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the microbiology of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) and its antimicrobial susceptibilities.
Methods: Ninety-three patients (100 eyes) diagnosed with PANDO, categorized as acute, chronic dacryocystitis, or simple epiphora, were prospectively enrolled. Lacrimal sac contents were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi. Cultured organisms were identified, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for aerobic bacteria.
Results: Seventy-nine of the 100 samples were culture positive. One hundred twenty-seven organisms were isolated, and 29 different species were identified. Most microorganisms were Gram-positive bacteria (45 samples or 57.0% of all positive culture samples), whereas Gram-negative bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi were found in 39 (49.4%), 24 (30.4%), and four samples (5.1%), respectively. The most frequently isolated group was coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.8%), followed by nonspore-forming Gram-positive rods (anaerobe) (17.7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.2%). Of the 100 samples, five, 45, and 50 samples were obtained from patients with acute dacryocystitis, chronic dacryocystitis, and simple epiphora, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that Gram-negative organisms were isolated more frequently from the chronic dacryocystitis subgroup than from the simple epiphora subgroup (P=0.012). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that ciprofloxacin was the most effective drug against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.
Conclusion: Patients with PANDO, with or without clinical signs of lacrimal infection, were culture positive. Gram-negative organisms were frequently isolated, which were different from previous studies. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective agent against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.
Keywords: microbiology, acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, simple epiphora, acute dacryocystitis, chronic dacryocystitis
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