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mHealth medication and blood pressure self-management program in Hispanic hypertensives: a proof of concept trial

Authors Sieverdes JC, Gregoski M, Patel S, Williamson D, Brunner-Jackson B, Rundbaken J, Treiber E, Davidson L, Treiber FA

Received 8 June 2013

Accepted for publication 14 August 2013

Published 4 October 2013 Volume 2013:1 Pages 1—10

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/SHTT.S49633

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2


John C Sieverdes,1 Mathew Gregoski,1 Sachin Patel,1 Deborah Williamson,1 Brenda Brunner-Jackson,1 Judith Rundbaken,1 Eveline Treiber,1 Lydia Davidson,1 Frank A Treiber1,2

1
Technology Applications Center for Healthful Lifestyles, College of Nursing, 2College of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA

Abstract: Patient nonadherence to medication regimens and provider therapeutic inertia (failure to respond in timely manner to clinical data) are two primary contributors to ineffective chronic disease management. This 3-month proof of concept trial used an iterative design approach guided by self-determination theory and the technology acceptance model to develop a culturally sensitive, patient-centered, and provider-centered mobile health medication and blood pressure self-management program. Cellular connected electronic medication trays provided reminder signals for patients to take medications and smartphone messaging reminded patients to take at-home blood pressures using a Bluetooth-enabled monitor. Providers were given bimonthly feedback. Motivational and reinforcement text and audio messages were sent based upon medication adherence rates and blood pressure levels. Ten Hispanics with uncontrolled essential hypertension were randomized to standard care and Smartphone Medication Adherence Stops Hypertension (SMASH) intervention groups. Primary outcomes of provider and patient acceptability of the program were found to be high. Retention rates for the 3-month program were 100%, with mean ± standard deviation overall medication adherence for the SMASH group at 97.2% ± 2.8%, with all strongly believing the program helped them remember to take their medication. SMASH participants measured their blood pressure every 3 days 83.2% ± 6.0% of the time and completed 89.2% ± 19.06% of the expected readings. Nonparametric tests showed statistical significance for resting blood pressure changes between groups at months 2 (P = 0.016) and 3 (P = 0.008), with a pre-intervention to 3-month mean systolic blood pressure reduction of 47.2 mmHg for the SMASH group compared with a reduction of 12 mmHg for the standard care group. Change in scores between pre-intervention and months 1, 2, and 3 for ambulatory blood pressure values found that the SMASH group exhibited consistently greater reductions for 24-hour, wake, and sleep categories compared with little change in the standard care group, although statistical significance was not reached. Principles of patient-centered care highlight partnering with intended users and implementers are important when developing a culturally sensitive intervention that is meaningful and effective.

Keywords: medication adherence, clinical inertia, self-determination theory, mHealth, blood pressure control, essential hypertension, Hispanics

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