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Methotrexate-coupled nanoparticles and magnetic nanochemothermia for the relapse-free treatment of T24 bladder tumors

Authors Stapf M, Teichgräber U, Hilger I

Received 29 August 2016

Accepted for publication 9 December 2016

Published 6 April 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 2793—2811


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Marcus Stapf, Ulf Teichgräber, Ingrid Hilger

Department of Experimental Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany

Abstract: Heat-based approaches have been considered as promising tools due to their ability to directly eradicate tumor cells and/or increase the sensitivity of tumors to radiation- or chemotherapy. In particular, the heating of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via an alternating magnetic field can provide a handy alternative for a localized tumor treatment. To amplify the efficacy of magnetically induced thermal treatments, we elucidated the superior tumor-destructive effect of methotrexate-coupled MNPs (MTX/MNPs) in combination with magnetic heating (nanochemothermia) over the thermal treatment alone. Our studies in a murine bladder xenograft model revealed the enormous potential of nanochemothermia for a localized and relapse-free destruction of tumors which was superior to the thermal treatment alone. Nanochemothermia remarkably fostered the reduction of tumor volume. It impaired proapoptotic signaling (eg, p-p53), cell survival (eg, p-ERK1/2), and cell cycle (cyclins) pathways. Additionally, heat shock proteins (eg, HSP70) were remarkably affected. Moreover, nanochemothermia impaired the induction of angiogenic signaling by decreasing, for example, the levels of VEGF-R1 and MMP9, although an increasing tumor hypoxia was indicated by elevated Hif-1α levels. In contrast, tumor cells were able to recover after the thermal treatments alone. In conclusion, nanochemothermia on the basis of MTX/MNPs was superior to the thermal treatment due to a modification of cellular pathways, particularly those associated with the cellular survival and tumor vasculature. This allowed very efficient and relapse-free destruction of tumors.

Keywords: bladder cancer, magnetic heating, magnetic nanoparticles, methotrexate, hyperthermia, mouse xenograft

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