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Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): One Health Perspective Approach to the Bacterium Epidemiology, Virulence Factors, Antibiotic-Resistance, and Zoonotic Impact

Authors Algammal A, Hetta HF, Elkelish A, Alkhalifah D, Hozzein W, Batiha G, El Nahhas N, Mabrok M

Received 23 July 2020

Accepted for publication 19 August 2020

Published 22 September 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 3255—3265

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S272733

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Sahil Khanna


Abdelazeem M Algammal,1 Helal F Hetta,2,3 Amr Elkelish,4 Dalal Hussien H Alkhalifah,5 Wael N Hozzein,6,7 Gaber El-Saber Batiha,8 Nihal El Nahhas,9 Mahmoud A Mabrok10,11

1Department of Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt; 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University, Assuit 71515, Egypt; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0595, USA; 4Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt; 5Biology Department, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; 6Bioproducts Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; 7Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt; 8Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt; 9Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21515, Egypt; 10Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt; 11Fish Infectious Diseases Research Unit (FID RU), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Correspondence: Abdelazeem M Algammal
Department of Bacteriology, Immunology and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
Tel +201010667290
Email abdelazeem.algammal@vet.suez.edu.eg

Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen and a historically emergent zoonotic pathogen with public health and veterinary importance. In humans, MRSA commonly causes severe infectious diseases, including food poisoning, pyogenic endocarditis, suppurative pneumonia, otitis media, osteomyelitis, and pyogenic infections of the skin, soft tissues. In the horse, MRSA could cause a localized purulent infection and botryomycosis; in cattle and ewe, localized pyogenic infection and severe acute mastitis with marked toxemia; in sheep, abscess disease resembles caseous lymphadenitis caused by anaerobic strains; in dogs and cats, pustular dermatitis and food poisoning; in pig, exudative epidermatitis “greasy pig disease; in birds, MRSA causes bumble-foot. The methicillin resistance could be determined by PCR-based detection of the mecA gene as well as resistance to cefoxitin. In Egypt, MRSA is one of the important occasions of subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis, and the prevalence of MRSA varies by geographical region. In this review, we are trying to illustrate variable data about the host susceptibility, diseases, epidemiology, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, treatment, and control of MRSA infection.

Keywords: MRSA, One Health Approach, pathogenicity, virulence factors, epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, treatment

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