Metastatic renal cell carcinoma: update on epidemiology, genetics, and therapeutic modalities
Angela Graves,1 Hannah Hessamodini,1 Germaine Wong,2 Wai H Lim1,3
1Department of Renal Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Centre for Kidney Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
Abstract: The treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Despite advances in the understanding of the immunobiology of RCC and the availability of several novel targeted agents, there has been little improvement in the survival of patients with metastatic RCC. This review will focus on the recent understanding of risk factors and treatment options and outcomes of metastatic RCC, in particular, targeted therapeutic agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Prospective studies are required to determine whether sequential targeted therapy will further improve progression-free survival in RCC. Ongoing research to develop novel agents with better tolerability and enhanced efficacy in the treatment of metastatic RCC is required.
Keywords: metastatic renal cell carcinoma, targeted treatment, immunotherapy, cytokines
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