Metabolic syndrome is associated with peripheral endothelial dysfunction amongst men
Received 9 February 2019
Accepted for publication 11 April 2019
Published 5 July 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1035—1045
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Ms Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Juei-Tang Cheng
Riad Taher,1 Jaskanwal D Sara,1 Behnam Heidari,1 Takumi Toya,1 Lilach O Lerman,2 Amir Lerman1
1Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA
Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and peripheral endothelial dysfunction (PED) are both independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). PED provides prognostic information beyond that provided by conventional risk factors. However, the association between MetS and PED remains uncertain. We evaluated the association between MetS and PED.
Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who were referred to Mayo Clinic between 2006 and 2014 for evaluation of chest pain and/or an assessment of CVD risk that included an assessment of PED measured with reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry. MetS was defined as the presence of at least 3 of the following: body mass index≥25 kg/m,2 impaired fasting glucose or diabetes, high blood pressure or hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Results: Six hundred seventy-eight patients were included (mean age 51.9±13.5 years, 418 (61.6%) women), of which 293 (43.2%) had PED, and 249 (36.7%) had MetS. In multivariable analyses adjusted for age, sex, CVD, smoking status, and elevated low-density lipoprotein, MetS was significantly associated with PED (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.06; P=0.0090). Of the individual MetS components, only being overweight and MetS range high-density lipoprotein had a similar association. After stratifying by sex, the association between MetS and PED persisted only in men (OR 3.16, P=0.0094).
Conclusions: MetS is associated with PED in men undergoing an assessment of chest pain and/or CVD risk. Identifying PED in individuals with MetS could provide an abridged assessment of risk, potentially allowing for earlier and more intensive management of risk factors.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome, peripheral endothelial dysfunction, reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry, cardiovascular disease
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