Metabolic Syndrome as a Risk Factor for Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adult Patients with Turner Syndrome
Received 5 September 2019
Accepted for publication 5 December 2019
Published 13 January 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 25—35
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Martin H. Maurer
Francisco Álvarez-Nava, 1, 2 Marcia Racines-Orbe, 3 Julia Witt, 1 Jéssica Guarderas, 1 Yosselin Vicuña, 3 María Estévez, 4 Roberto Lanes 5
1Biological Sciences School, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Central University of Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador; 2Institute of Genetic Research, University of Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela; 3Institute of Biomedicine Research, Central University of Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador; 4Ecuadorian Foundation in Support of Turner Syndrome, Quito, Ecuador; 5Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Hospital De Clinicas Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela
Correspondence: Francisco Álvarez-Nava
Biological Sciences School, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Central University of Ecuador, Calle Iquique Con Calle Sodiro Number N14-121, Parroquia San Blas, Quito, Pichincha 170113, Ecuador
Background and purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The frequency of each component of MetS in Turner syndrome (TS) subjects is high. An elevated incidence of hearing loss has also been reported in TS. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) affects at least half of young women with TS. The association between MetS and SNHL has not been previously considered in TS. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between these two conditions.
Patients and Methods: Cross-sectional anthropometric, cardio-metabolic and audiological data were obtained from a cohort consisting of unrelated TS subjects (> 20 years of age; n = 93). Metabolic syndrome was deﬁned according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Types and severity of hearing loss were based on the American Speech Hearing Association guidelines.
Results: Hearing loss was detected in 74% of ears from adult TS subjects and SNHL was observed in half of our TS subjects. The prevalence of MetS in TS subjects with or without SNHL was 64% and 11%, respectively (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, MetS was related to a ninefold increase in the odds of SNHL. This odds increased in a stepwise manner as the number of MetS components increased.
Conclusion: MetS and its individual components were associated factors for SNHL in TS subjects. A reduction in the number and severity of the components of MetS might potentially contribute to decreasing the progression of SNHL at younger ages, but further studies will be needed to explain the underlying pathological mechanism connecting MetS and SNHL.
Keywords: hearing loss, metabolic syndrome, risk factors, Turner syndrome
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