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Metabolic reprogramming results in abnormal glycolysis in gastric cancer: a review

Authors Liu Y, Zhang Z, Wang J, Chen C, Tang X, Zhu J, Liu J

Received 4 October 2018

Accepted for publication 11 January 2019

Published 13 February 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1195—1204

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S189687

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Carlos E Vigil


Yuanda Liu,1 Ze Zhang,2 Junyang Wang,1 Chao Chen,1 Xiaohuan Tang,1 Jiaming Zhu,1,* Jingjing Liu1,*

1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China; 2Department of General Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: The Warburg effect in tumor cells involves the uptake of high levels of glucose, enhanced glycolysis, and the metabolism of pyruvate to lactic acid rather than oxidative phosphorylation to generate energy under aerobic conditions. This effect is closely related to the occurrence, invasion, metastasis, drug resistance, and poor prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). Current research has further demonstrated that the Warburg effect in GC cells is not only mediated by the glycolysis pathway, but also includes roles for mitochondria, noncoding RNAs, and other proteins that do not directly regulate metabolism. As a result, changes in the glycolysis pathway not only lead to abnormal glucose metabolism, but they also affect mitochondrial functions, cellular processes such as apoptosis and cell cycle regulation, and the metabolism of lipids and amino acids. In this review, we discuss metabolic reprogramming in GC based on glycolysis, a possible link between glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, and we clarify the role of mitochondria. We also examine recent studies of metabolic inhibitors in GC.

Keywords: gastric cancer, glycolysis, mitochondria, metabolic reprogramming, Helicobacter pylori
 

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