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Medication Profile and Treatment Cost Estimation Among Outpatients with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Depression, and Anxiety Disorders in Indonesia

Authors Puspitasari IM, Sinuraya RK, Rahayu C, Witriani W, Zannah U, Hafifah A, Ningtyas AR, Vildayanti H

Received 27 November 2019

Accepted for publication 10 March 2020

Published 26 March 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 815—828

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S240058

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Yuping Ning


Irma M Puspitasari,1,2,* Rano K Sinuraya,1,2,* Cherry Rahayu,3 Witriani Witriani,4 Uzlifatul Zannah,1 Auliani Hafifah,1 Ajeng R Ningtyas,1 Hilda Vildayanti1

1Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Indonesia; 2Center of Excellence in Higher Education for Pharmaceutical Care Innovation, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Indonesia; 3Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 4Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Indonesia

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Irma M Puspitasari
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jalan Bandung Sumedang KM 21, Sumedang, West Java, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
Tel +62 22 84288888 (Ext 3510)
Email irma.melyani@unpad.ac.id

Purpose: The present retrospective study aimed to determine the medication profile and estimate the treatment costs from medical records of new outpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorders from a healthcare perspective at a national referral hospital in Indonesia from 2016 to 2018.
Methods: Medical records (including medical and administrative data) of 357 new outpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety disorders were collected from the hospital information system. The records of new outpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety disorders aged > 18 years and had only received drugs for treatment were included. The medication profile was descriptively assessed, and estimated costs were calculated based on direct costs from a healthcare perspective.
Results: Overall, 173 medical records were further analyzed. The main drugs administered to the new outpatients were atypical and typical antipsychotics for schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers for bipolar disorder, antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics for depression, and antidepressants and benzodiazepines for anxiety disorders. The average annual treatment costs per patient were IDR 3,307,931 (USD 236) for schizophrenia, IDR 17,978,865 (USD 1,284) for bipolar disorder, IDR 1,601,850 (USD 114) for depression, and IDR 1,190,563 (USD 85) for anxiety disorders.
Conclusion: The most commonly prescribed drugs for schizophrenia were haloperidol and risperidone; for bipolar disorders, sodium divalproex and risperidone; for depression, fluoxetine and sertraline; and for anxiety disorders, sertraline and lorazepam. Considering the high prevalence and estimated treatment costs for mental disorders, special attention is required to prevent an increase in their prevalence in Indonesia.

Keywords: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, medication profile, cost estimation

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