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Medical History, Clinical Features, Treatment Outcome and Its Predictors Among Infectious Keratitis Patients in Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia: Prospective Observational Study

Authors Dago TR, Woldemichael DK, Daba FB

Received 12 November 2020

Accepted for publication 22 February 2021

Published 22 March 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 1223—1237

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S291880

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Tolcha Regasa Dago,1 Dagmawit Kifle Woldemichael,2 Fekede Bekele Daba3

1School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Science, Mizan Tepi University, Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Tolcha Regasa Dago
Mizan-Tepi University, P.O Box 260 Tel +251917233151
Email [email protected]

Background: Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and irreversible blindness among the corneal diseases. Its diagnosis and management remain getting challenge. The clinical and visual outcome remains poor in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine treatment outcome and its predictors among patients with infectious keratitis.
Methods: Prospective observational study was conducted among adult patients diagnosed with infectious keratitis at the Ophthalmology Department in Jimma University Medical Center from April 1 to September 30, 2019. The primary outcome indicator was response of the ulcer to empirical treatment. Ulcers that did not heal and required surgery had a poor outcome. Variables with a p-value of < 0.25 were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model to determine the independent predictors of poor treatment outcome and variables with a p-value of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: The research involved 131 adult patients. Eighty-seven (66.4%) were males. The mean age was 39.38 (± 18.9) years. Eighty-three (63.4%) patients had poor treatment outcome. Mean length of hospital stay was 17.38 (± 12.563) days. Poor visual outcome was observed among 71 (54.2%) participants. Evisceration was done for seven (5.3%) patients. Independent predictors of poor treatment outcome include perforation at admission (AOR=6.1, 95%CI: 1.5– 25.1), presence of comorbidity (AOR=7.7, 95%CI: 2.16– 27.3), poor adherence (AOR=5.3, 95%CI: 1.8– 25.9), traditional medicine use (AOR=6.7, 95%CI: 1.8– 25.4), ulcer depth > 1/3 (AOR=7.6, 95%CI: 2.48– 48.23) and farm workers (AOR=3.59, 95%CI: 1.09– 11.77). Major complications occurred after admissions were perforation (14.5%), followed by endophthalmitis (7.63%) and corneal opacity (6.87%).
Conclusion and Recommendation: Our study found high poor treatment outcomes and high poor visual outcomes. Presence of comorbidity, perforation at admission, traditional medicine use, working on a farm, poor adherence, and ulcer depth were the predictors of poor treatment outcome. This high poor outcome requires a nationwide interventional study and urgent intervention that may reach rural communities.

Keywords: microbes, infectious keratitis, treatment outcome, risk factors, Ethiopia

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