Measuring situation awareness in emergency settings: a systematic review of tools and outcomes
Simon Cooper,1,2 Joanne Porter,3 Linda Peach4
1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Berwick, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Brighton, Brighton, UK; 3School of Nursing and Midwifery Monash University, Gippsland, VIC, 4School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Background: Nontechnical skills have an impact on health care outcomes and improve patient safety. Situation awareness is core with the view that an understanding of the environment will influence decision-making and performance. This paper reviews and describes indirect and direct measures of situation awareness applicable for emergency settings.
Methods: Electronic databases and search engines were searched from 1980 to 2010, including CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Pro-Quest, Cochrane, and the search engine, Google Scholar. Access strategies included keyword, author, and journal searches. Publications identified were assessed for relevance, and analyzed and synthesized using Oxford evidence levels and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme guidelines in order to assess their quality and rigor.
Results: One hundred and thirteen papers were initially identified, and reduced to 55 following title and abstract review. The final selection included 14 papers drawn from the fields of emergency medicine, intensive care, anesthetics, and surgery. Ten of these discussed four general nontechnical skill measures (including situation awareness) and four incorporated the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique.
Conclusion: A range of direct and indirect techniques for measuring situation awareness is available. In the medical literature, indirect approaches are the most common, with situation awareness measured as part of a nontechnical skills assessment. In simulation-based studies, situation awareness in emergencies tends to be suboptimal, indicating the need for improved training techniques to enhance awareness and improve decision-making.
Keywords: nontechnical skills, situation awareness, teamwork, emergency, acute care
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