Back to Journals » Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management » Volume 8

Maximizing neuroprotection: where do we stand?

Authors Kuffler D

Received 21 December 2011

Accepted for publication 17 January 2012

Published 10 April 2012 Volume 2012:8 Pages 185—194


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Damien P Kuffler

Institute of Neurobiology, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico

Abstract: Brain and spinal cord traumas include blunt and penetrating trauma, disease, and required surgery. Such traumas trigger events such as inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory and other cells, oxidative stress, acidification, excitotoxicity, ischemia, and the loss of calcium homeostasis, all of which cause neurotoxicity and neuron death. To prevent trauma-induced neurological deficits and death, each of the many neurotoxic events that occur in parallel or sequentially must be minimized or prevented. Although neuroprotective techniques have been developed that block single neurotoxic events, most provide only limited neuroprotection and are only applied singly. However, because many neurotoxicity triggers arise from common events, an approach for invoking more effective neuroprotection is to apply multiple neuroprotective methods simultaneously before the many neurotoxic triggers and cascades are initiated and become irreversible. This paper first discusses some triggers of neurotoxicity and neuroprotective mechanisms that block them, including hypothermia, alkalinization, and the administration of adenosine. It then examines how the simultaneous application of these techniques provides significantly greater neuroprotection than is provided by any technique alone. The paper also stresses the importance of determining whether the neuroprotection provided by these techniques can be further enhanced by combining them with additional techniques, such as the systemic administration of glucocorticoids. Finally, the paper stresses the absolute critical importance of applying these techniques within the “golden hour” following trauma, before the many neurotoxic events and cascades are manifest and before the neurotoxic cascades become irreversible.

Keywords: adenosine, hypothermia, alkalinization, glucocorticoids

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other article by this author:

Readers of this article also read:

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010