Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the gastrointestinal cancers: current knowledge and clinical potential
Yi-Chun Yeh, Bor-Shyang Sheu
Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan
Abstract: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) family can degrade various components of the extracellular matrix and are implicated in a number of key normal processes. Aberrantly enhanced MMP proteolysis can lead to tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. Therefore, MMPs are considered important therapeutic and diagnostic targets for the treatment and detection of human cancers. This review summarizes the recent literature on MMPs and their inhibitors as diagnostic and prognostic predictors of gastrointestinal cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. Genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to cancer progression and influence cancer susceptibility. Single nucleotide polymorphisms are the most common type of genetic variation, and can alter the expression and function of the encoded proteins. MicroRNAs are a family of small non-coding RNA molecules that function in post-transcriptional gene regulation. This review also focuses on the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms and microRNAs to the alteration of MMPs and their inhibitors.
Keywords: MMP, TIMP, gastrointestinal cancers, biomarker, SNP, miRNA
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