Back to Journals » International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease » Volume 4

Markers of early disease and prognosis in COPD

Authors Dahl M, Nordestgaard B

Published 7 April 2009 Volume 2009:4 Pages 157—167


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Morten Dahl, Børge G Nordestgaard

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: COPD is a complex disease with multiple pathological components, which we unfortunately tend to ignore when spirometry is used as the only method to evaluate the disorder. Additional measures are needed to allow a more complete and clinically relevant assessment of COPD. The earliest potential risk factors of disease in COPD are variations in the genetic background. Genetic variations are present from conception and can determine lifelong changes in enzyme activities and protein concentrations. In contrast, measurements in blood, sputum, exhaled breath, broncho-alveolar lavage, and lung biopsies may vary substantially over time. This review explores potential markers of early disease and prognosis in COPD by examining genetic markers in the α1-antitrypsin, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and MBL-2 genes, and by examining the biochemical markers fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP), which correlate with degree of pulmonary inflammation during stable conditions of COPD. Chronic lung inflammation appears to contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD, and markers of this process have promising predictive value in COPD. To implement markers for COPD in clinical practice, besides those already established for the α1-antitrypsin gene, further research and validation studies are needed.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, biomarker, pathogenesis, prognosis, genetics

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF] 


Readers of this article also read:

Impact of surface coating and particle size on the uptake of small and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by macrophages

Saito S, Tsugeno M, Koto D, Mori Y, Yoshioka Y, Nohara S, Murase K

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5415-5421

Published Date: 10 October 2012

Advances in dental veneers: materials, applications, and techniques

Pini NP, Aguiar FHB, Lima DAN, Lovadino JR, Terada RS, Pascotto RC

Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry 2012, 4:9-16

Published Date: 10 February 2012

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options

Adhvaryu MR, Vakharia BC

Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications 2011, 3:51-67

Published Date: 14 December 2011

Influence of surface charge on the potential toxicity of PLGA nanoparticles towards Calu-3 cells

Mura S, Hillaireau H, Nicolas J, Le Droumaguet B, Gueutin C, Zanna S, Tsapis N, Fattal E

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:2591-2605

Published Date: 26 October 2011

A new algorithm for finite element simulation of wedge osteotomies in voxel models with application to the tibia

Thomas Pressel, Markus D Schofer, Jörg Meiforth, et al

Orthopedic Research and Reviews 2010, 2:11-16

Published Date: 25 January 2010

Primary treatment of diabetic macular edema

Tushar M Ranchod, Stuart L Fine

Clinical Interventions in Aging 2009, 4:101-107

Published Date: 25 February 2009

A genetic study of the NOS3 gene for ischemic stroke in a Chinese population

Danhua Du, Peng Gao, Linsen Hu, Yumei Yang, Feng Wang, et al

International Journal of General Medicine 2008, 1:65-68

Published Date: 28 September 2008