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Manual evaluation of the diaphragm muscle

Authors Bordoni B, Marelli F, Morabito B, Sacconi B

Received 28 April 2016

Accepted for publication 10 June 2016

Published 18 August 2016 Volume 2016:11(1) Pages 1949—1956

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S111634

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Professor Hsiao-Chi Chuang

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell

Bruno Bordoni,1–3 F Marelli,2,3 B Morabito,2–4 B Sacconi5

1Department of Cardiology, Foundation Don Carlo Gnocchi IRCCS, Institute of Hospitalization and Care with Scientific Address, Milan, 2CRESO, School of Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Castellanza, 3CRESO, School of Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Falconara Marittima, 4Foundation Polyclinic University A Gemelli, University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 5Radiological, Oncological and Anatomopathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Abstract: The respiratory diaphragm is the most important muscle for breathing. It contributes to various processes such as expectoration, vomiting, swallowing, urination, and defecation. It facilitates the venous and lymphatic return and helps viscera located above and below the diaphragm to work properly. Its activity is fundamental in the maintenance of posture and body position changes. It can affect the pain perception and emotional state. Many authors reported on diaphragmatic training by using special instruments, whereas only a few studies focused on manual therapy approaches. To the knowledge of the authors, the existing scientific literature does not exhaustively examines the manual evaluation of the diaphragm in its different portions. A complete evaluation of the diaphragm is mandatory for several professional subjects, such as physiotherapists, osteopaths, and chiropractors not only to elaborate a treatment strategy but also to obtain information on the validity of the training performed on the patient. This article aims to describe a strategy of manual evaluation of the diaphragm, with particular attention to anatomical fundamentals, in order to stimulate further research on this less explored field.

Keywords: diaphragm, osteopathic evaluation, manual therapy, chiropractic, physiotherapy

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